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Homemade electric scooter






0. INTRO


Let's build our HOMEMADE electric scooter. This should be a very easy electronic project. The most difficult part is the construction of the scooter and by that I mean the brushless motor connection with the wheel. You'll see an easy way to transfer the motor rotation to the wheel. Make sure you'll read all the extra info, all the schematics, and download the codes and STL 3D files from the links below in this tutorial. Also read all the comments in the code in order to understand how it works.

Please use the LINKS in this tutorial to buy your parts. That will also help my workshop and the price for you will be the same. Thank you very much.






1. PART LIST


Ok, let's see what we need for this project. I'll explain more than one option so you'll find the full part list below. Depending on the option that you'll go for, you'll have to buy different components. Of course we will need a scooter. I've coose a big one because I'm a heavy guy. Please note that the price in my case is a little bit higher because I need big and powerfull parts (my weight around 100kg). Of course, if you weight around 60kg you won't need a heavy duty motor and neither a lot of batteries.

gelectric scooter homemade gear arduino

Ok, so below you have the link for the full part list. Check that out and make your buy cart.


Full part list here:




1.1 TWO OPTIONS


I'll present you two options. The timing belt + gears and the direct pully system. I'll go with the direct pulley system since is much easier for me. In case of using timing belts and gears, you'll have to fit the gear between the wheel and the support of the scooter and that part is usually difficult. Also you'll need a tension system that will tension the belt. That's why I'll use the direct pulley system with a 3D printed pulley that I've designed.

electric scooter homemade pulley



Ok, so I'll go with the second option with the 3D printed pulley that you could also download from the link below and print it yourself. Follow the instructions there for the print. You'll find a few examples with different sizes. Take in mind that a bigger diameter pulley will give more top speed but lower torque. I prefere torque so I'll go with a small pulley. In the full part list you'll find the other components for the timing belt and geared pulley option. Check the part list before you start this project.

3D pulleys here:







2. Main schematic


Ok, so now let's take a look on how we will join all the electronic components. We need to supply 14.8V from the batteries to the ESC. The ESC will be connected to the brushless motor and also to the Arduino in order to supply 5V to it. To the Arduino we add a potentiometer and we are done. Take a look at the schematics below. There are two types of potentiometers that you could use. It all depends on you. If you use the lineal sliding potentiometer, just add an elastic rubber band and you are good to go. If you use the normal potentiometer, you should 3D print the speed control files that you could also download from a link below. Print that case, solder the potentiometer and screw it inside of the case. The case has holes in order to be able to screw it on the rudder of the scooter. You have some examples photos below. An extra part that we will see later is to add a speed counter to this arduino using a magnetic sensor on the wheel.

3D speed control STL case:

electric scooter homemade schematic electric scooter homemade schematic

I've 3D printed the potentiometer case and install it on the scooter rudder using two 3mm screws, the case already has holes for the M3 nuts.
As you can see in the schematic above, the brushless motor has a triple phase input that has no polarity. If the motor spins in the oposite direction just swap two of the wires one with each other. I recommand you to add a 100uF capacitor to the 5V pin of the Arduino. The 5V voltage from the BEC of the ESC could have some noise with peaks and the 100uF cap will improve the voltage.


3d stl case electric scooter homemade


You will also need the 3D parts for the battery case, link for that below. That case will be placed on the main axis of the scooter. The designs are just the top and bottom parts of the case. Those part could get screwed on the metal tube and then the sides will be made of plywood. Check the construction photos for more.

Battery case STL files:

On the next page we start the scooter construction. Make sure you read all the info in the part list and the 3D designs.